Metabolism of carbohydrates
Continuing to consider the fine tuning of our body by changing the basics of the nutrition plan, we need to consider all types of nutrients . And today we will consider one of the most important elements in nutrition. How does in our body metabolism of carbohydrates acts, and how to eat properly so that it benefits your sports goals and achievements, and not the other way round?
Regulation of carbohydrate metabolism is one of the most complex structures in our body. The body works on carbohydrates, as the main source for fuel. There is a setup system that allows you to consume carbohydrates, as a priority power source, with maximum energy efficiency.
Our body consumes energy solely from carbohydrates. And only if the energy is not enough, it will recustomize the metabolism of fats , or use a protein source as a source of fuel. Read the article about metabolism of fats.
Stages of carbohydrate metabolism
The main stages of carbohydrate metabolism are divided into 3 main groups:
- Transformation of carbohydrates into energy.
- Insulin reaction.
- Use of energy and excretion of waste products.
The first stage – fermentation of carbohydrates
Unlike fatty tissue, or protein products, the transformation and decomposition of carbohydrates into simple monosaccharides, already occur during the chewing phase. Under the influence of saliva, any complex carbohydrate is transformed into a simple molecule of desctrose.
In order not to be unfounded, we suggest an experiment. Take a piece of unsweetened bread and start to chew it for a long time. At a certain stage you will feel a sweet taste. This means that the glycemic index of bread under the influence of saliva has grown and has become even higher than that of sugar. Further, everything that has not been shredded is digested already in the stomach. To do this, the gastric juice is used, which at different rates splits these or other structures to the level of the simplest glucose. Dextrose is directly sent to the circulatory system.
The second stage is the distribution of the energy received in the liver
Practically all incoming food passes the stage of infiltration with blood in the liver. They enter the circulatory system from the liver cells. There, under the influence of hormones, begins the glucagon reaction and the dosage of carbohydrate saturation of the transport cells in the circulatory system.
The third stage is the transition of all sugar into blood
The liver is able to process only 50-60 grams of pure glucose for a certain time, sugar practically unchanged enters the blood. Then it begins to circulate in all organs, filling them with energy for normal functioning. In the conditions of high consumption of carbohydrates with a high glycemic index, the following changes occur:
- Sugar cells replace oxygen cells. This begins to cause oxygen starvation of tissues and a decrease in activity.
- With a certain saturation, the blood condenses. This makes it difficult to move through the vessels, increases the load on the heart muscle, and as a result worsens the functioning of the body as a whole.
The fourth stage is the insulin reaction
It is an adaptation reaction of our body to excessive saturation of blood sugar. In order for this to happen, at a certain threshold, insulin is injected into the bloodstream. This hormone is the main regulator of blood sugar, and with its lack of people develop diabetes.
Insulin binds glucose cells, turning them into glycogen. Glycogen is a number of sugar molecules linked together. They are an internal source of nutrition for all tissues. Unlike sugar, they do not bind water, and therefore can move freely without causing hypoxia or thickening of the blood.
To glycogen does not clog the transport channels in the body, insulin opens the cellular structure of internal tissues, and all carbohydrates are completely locked in these cells.
To bind sugar molecules to glycogen, the liver is involved, the processing speed of which is limited. If carbohydrates are too much – the backup method of conversion is started. In the blood, alkaloids are injected, which bind carbohydrates and turn them into lipids, which are deposited under the skin.
The fifth stage is the secondary use of accumulated reserves
In the body, athletes have special glycogen depots, which a person can use as a source of backup “fast food”. Under the influence of oxygen and increased loads, the body can carry out aerobic glycolysis from cells located in the glycogen depot.
The secondary decomposition of carbohydrates takes place without insulin, since the body is able to independently regulate the level of how many glycogen molecules it needs to decompose to obtain the optimum amount of energy.
The last stage is the excretion of waste products
Since sugar in the process of using it by the body undergoes chemical reactions with the release of thermal and mechanical energy, the output remains a product of vital activity, which in its composition is the closest to pure coal. It binds to the rest of the body’s vital activity, and is removed from the circulatory system first into the gastrointestinal tract, where the complete transformation is eliminated through the rectum.
Differences in glucose metabolism from fructose
The metabolism of fructose, which has a different structure from glucose, goes a little differently, so you need to consider the following factors:
- Fructose is the only available source of fast carbohydrates for people suffering from diabetes.
- The glycemic load of fruits is lower than that of any other product. For example, watermelon – one of the sweetest and largest fruits, has a glycemic load of about 2. And this means that per kilogram of watermelon, there are only 20 grams of fructose. To achieve the optimal dosage at which it will be turned into adipose tissue, you need to eat about 2.5 kilograms of this sweet fruit.
- The taste of fructose is sweeter than sugar, and, therefore, using sugar substitutes based on it, you can consume less carbohydrates in general.
And now we will consider, than the metabolism of carbohydrates differs to fructose and glucose accordingly.
|Metabolism of glucose||Metabolism of fructose|
|There is an absorption of part of the incoming sugar in the liver cells.||Virtually not absorbed in the liver.|
|Activates the insulin reaction.||. In the process of metabolism, alkaloids are excreted, which poison the body.|
|Activates the glucagon reaction.||Do not participate in the transition of power sources to external sugar.|
|It is the preferred source of energy for the body.||They pass into adipose tissue without the participation of insulin.|
|Participates in the creation of glycogen cells.||They can not participate in the creation of glycogen stores due to the more complex structure and complete form of the monosaccharide.|
|Low sensitivity and the possibility of transformation into triglycerides.||High probability of transformation into adipose tissue with relatively low consumption.|
Functions of carbohydrates
Considering the basics of carbohydrate metabolism, we will mention the main functions of sugar in our body.
- Energy function. Carbohydrates are the preferred energy source in view of their structure.
- Opening function. The carbohydrate causes insulin, and can open cells without destroying them to penetrate other nutrients. That’s why the gainers are more popular in comparison with pure protein cocktails.
- The storing function. The body uses them and accumulates them in case of an emergency stress situation. He does not need transport proteins, and, therefore, it is much faster to oxidize the molecule.
- Improve the work of brain cells. The brain fluid can work only if there is enough sugar in the blood. Try to start learning something on an empty stomach, and you will realize that all your thoughts are occupied with food, and not at all by study or development.
Knowing the features of metabolism and the basic functions of carbohydrates in our body, it is difficult to overestimate their importance. To successfully lose weight or gain muscle mass, you need to keep the right energy balance. And remember, if you limit carbohydrates in your diet, creating a caloric deficit , the body will first start eating muscle, and not fatty deposits. If you want to know about it more similarly, learn about the peculiarities of the metabolism of fats.