Protein exchange and all you need to know about this process
Based on which to stand almost all food plans? On the squirrel! If you want to lose weight, eat more protein. You want to gain muscle mass – eat more protein. How does this universal nutrient work? Let’s try to understand such a question as the protein exchange in the human body.
As in the case of other nutrients, the process of protein metabolism is complicated by the fact that this is not the end product of metabolism , and therefore it must undergo a primary transformation, due to which it will acquire a normal appearance for the organism. It’s all about the structure of the protein molecule. First of all, it is a complex structure with a lot of internal connections. Strange as it may seem, almost all organic compounds consist of protein tissues, or are associated with various kinds of amino acids .
An amino acid is a basic unit. For the simplest comparison, we can draw analogies with glucose or unsaturated fatty acids, to which our food breaks down. If all carbohydrates break down into the same elements, like fats, then what amino acids the protein breaks up into depends on its original composition and method of preparation.
So, initially the protein is in its complete complex structure. And in this form, our body is not able to absorb it at all. Did you try to eat raw meat or eggs? How much in total can you eat such a product in grams, so that you do not get sick? Usually, for a normal person – it is limited to 100-150 grams, or even less. Therefore, traditionally, protein is cooked on fire. At this moment, under the influence of temperature, its denaturation takes place. The destruction of bonds that hold the molecule in a stable state is called denaturation. Only in a highly denatured form, our body is able to cope with the further decomposition of the protein into amino acids. And even in this case, he makes considerable efforts to sever ties so as not to damage the amino acids themselves, since in case of damage, the amino acids are burned to the level of simple carbohydrates. Read the article about metabolism of carbohydrates.
The stages of protein breakdown in the body
Naturally, the primary process of digestion, as well as the synthesis of new tissues, occurs not simultaneously. There are certain limitations, both in the speed and in the bulk metabolism of proteins in the cells of the body. We will try to consider in more detail.
First of all, there is a process of primary digestion. Unlike the metabolism of fats or carbohydrates. Even this stage can be divided into 2: the primary denaturing of proteins to simpler acids and further absorption in the intestine.
Remember: it is the intestine, and not the stomach, responsible for the conversion of proteins into amino acids and their further absorption.
Next, the protein has 2 ways. The first way is when there is a lack of calories in the body. In this case, all the amino acids that get into the blood cover the holes in the destroyed tissues, and the remaining ones are burned for energy. In case the balance of calorie and expenditure is positive, or the body has a sufficiently overclocked metabolism, then the situation here is different. In this case, the amino acids will go through a complex path and will be transformed into all the segments necessary to maintain normal functioning, and excess muscle tissue will be synthesized from the remainder.
Factors affecting the speed and volume of protein synthesis from external amino acids
Considering protein metabolism as a complex process, it is necessary to take into account all the factors that influence the synthesis of new protein structures from standard amino acids. Since if any of them is violated, all the amino acids obtained by complex fermentation and denaturation will simply go away as energy.
- Testosterone. He is responsible for the need for synthesis of tissues responsible for the quality of muscle mass.
- Cholesterol. Responsible for the synthesis of protein structures of collagen, indirectly affects the level of sex hormones.
- Protease. The amount of this enzyme depends on how long the protein is digested and denatured. If there is a lack of protease, the protein can go out of the intestine to the end and not being digested.
- Level of basal metabolism . This determines the basic need and consumption of internal protein stores throughout the day. For people with a high level of basal metabolism, you need more protein a day to maintain all the functions.
- The rate of metabolic processes. This determines the basic need and consumption of internal protein stores throughout the day. For people with a high level of basal metabolism, you need more protein a day to maintain all the functions
- Deficit / excess energy. If there is an excess of caloric content, the protein will fill and create new structures. In case of a deficit – it will simply close the holes. And in case of extreme caloric deficit, the protein will simply be burned to the level of the simplest energy.
Types of proteins
Despite the apparent simplicity, the structure of the protein tissue is so complex that it is characterized exclusively by the amino acid composition. At the same time, there are simplified classifications:
- Type. Here are plant and animal proteins. In fact, their difference is in the presence of a complete or incomplete amino acid composition.
- By source of protein. In this case, the classification uses a policy of beneficial nutrients that are contained in tissues other than amino acids.
- By the speed of perception.
Consider a complete classification of protein products in order to understand how those or other products are metabolized in our body.
|Type of protein||The source of protein tissue||Speed of assimilation||Amino acid composition||Incoming amino acids|
|Whey||Serum, and classic whey protein.||Relatively high||Full||Isoleucine, leucine, valine, gesticide, arginine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, lysine.|
|Lactic||Any dairy products.Starting from milk and finishing with cheese.||Relatively high||Full||Isoleucine, leucine, valine, gesticide, arginine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, lysine.|
|Meat||Muscular tissues of animal origin.||Relatively high||Full||Isoleucine, leucine, valine, tryptophan, lysine.|
|Egg||Eggs of various animals.||Relatively low||Full||Isoleucine, leycin, valine.|
|Soybean||It is synthesized or extracted from vegetable soy.||Relatively low||Incomplete||Isoleucine, leucine, valine, tryptophan, lysine.|
|Vegetable||Basically, this is the protein that we get with cereals, pasta and pastries.||Extremely low||Incomplete||Isoleucine, gesticide, arginine, leucine, valine.|
|Other sources of protein||Basically, these are nuts or products of synthesized protein.||Variationally||Depends on the source of protein itself||Isoleucine, leucine, valine. The rest depends on the source of the protein.|
Protein and Sport
To maintain a normal level of protein metabolism, an average person should consume about 1 gram of pure protein with a full amino acid composition per kilogram of body. At the same time, to athletes protein is more important. Therefore, they not only consume much more protein, but also divide it into different types and use them at different times. So, in particular, because of the possibility of protein tissues to completely stop catabolism in muscle tissues, very often the fast source of protein is serum or a synthetic protein with a limiting rate of digestion. At the same time, to slow the night catabolism, athletes use a protein with a low rate of absorption, which helps at night to maintain a normal amino acid balance in the body. Traditionally, for this use cottage cheese or its substrates.
But why do athletes need protein? Everything is very simple. For an athlete, the exchange of proteins is:
- The ability to slow catabolic reactions.
- Natural building material.
- A way to increase the energy intensity of muscle structures.
- The ability to speed recovery.
- The ability to increase the power performance.
- The precursor of sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar hypertrophy.
Disturbance of protein metabolism
Very often, considering chronic and clinical metabolic disorders in humans, people do not affect the processes of protein metabolism. But it is much easier to get than the violation of metabolism in general. The violation of protein metabolism is obtained due to the following reasons:
- Violation of the acidic environment of the stomach and intestines. In this case, not all proteins break down into amino acids, in view of which there is swelling and problems with the stool.
- Disfermentation in the stomach. Proteins are not absorbed by the body as a whole. To solve the problem you need to turn to the gastroenterologist, as a temporary measure can take the reception of enzymes. However, disfermentation is a serious human problem, which can lead to more complex consequences for treatment.
- Violation of the synthesis of protein tissues. This is due to hormonal disorders. In this case, the synthesis of protein tissues of internal organs is usually not affected. The synthesis of muscle tissue is affected. Usually indicates a lack of testosterone hormone or problems associated with the breakdown of proteins and the transport of certain types of amino acids.
- Violation of the secretion of hormones. External manifestations are manifested in the form of excessive synthesis of muscle tissue or inadequate. However, it should be remembered that if this violation was not caused artificially, then such a violation can lead to the formation of tumors and cancerous tumors
- Cholesterol level violation. With an excess of cholesterol, the proteins bind it, thereby being used for other purposes. In addition, an excess of cholesterol is a violation in the planning of nutrition, and can lead to such complications as heart attack and stroke.
Depending on the cause, a violation of protein metabolism can lead to different consequences. However, unlike the violation of fat metabolism, it will not only result in you gaining extra pounds, but it can completely disable your body. Some diseases associated with a violation of protein metabolism – pancreatitis and pancreatic necrosis, can even lead to death. Therefore, do not neglect the quality protein food in your diet.
Watch the video about protein: